Internalist perspective of technology: reconstruct the history of machines and processes focusing on the role of the inventor, laboratory practices, and the state of scientific knowledge at a particular time. They chart the sequence that leads from one physical object to the next…They try to understand technology from the point of view from those who encounter them in a particular time and place.  (Nye)

Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention: No two countries that are both part of a major global supply chain, like Dell’s, will ever fight a war against each other as long as they are both part of the same global supply chain (Friedman)

Contextualist perspective of technology: focuses on how the larger society shapes and chooses machines. It is impossible to separate the technical and cultural factors when accounting for which technology wins the largest market share.  (Nye)

Just-in-time:” “It originally referred to the production of goods to meet customer demand exactly, in time, quality and quantity, whether the `customer’ is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line. It has now come to mean producing with minimum waste. “Waste” is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources as well as materials.”1

Technology Leapfrogging: the bypassing of technological stages that others (other countries) have gone through.2

Social constructivism: Technology is influenced by society. Social factors contribute to the success or failure of technology

Socio-cognitive model of technological development: Interactions between beliefs, artifacts, and evaluation routines lead to the creation of alternative technological paths.

Supply chain: Each step in the production process is now like one link in a flexible chain, which is hooked to the next piece, then to the next and so on.

Technological Determinism: technology shapes how we as individuals in a society think, feel, act, and how society operates as we move from one technological age to another (Marshall Mcluhan)

Technological Momentum: when a technology is new, social factors play an important role it its development and adoption. However, once a technology becomes widely accepted and used, social factors are less important. This theory is viewed by some as a form of social constructivism, others view this theory as an intermediate between social constructivism and technological determinism. (Thomas P. Hughes)

Technological system: consists of the various physical parts of the technology and the network of political, social, and economic relationships and forces that control and shape the technology (Thomas P. Hughes)

Techno-globalist: View the world as a global village. Nations are about to disappear through the advance of globalizing new technologies (Edgerton)

Techno-nationalist: the key unit of analysis of technology is the nation state. Nations are the unit that invents. They have research and development budgets, culture of innovation that diffuse and use technology. (Edgerton)

Technological system: “A piece of technology does not exist in a social vacuum, but is connected with makers, users, and other technologies in often complex ways” (McClellan and Dorn)

Technology Innovation: the development of new knowledge, products, or processes, and government-oriented technology transfer

Technology Diffusion: dissemination of technical information and know-how and the subsequent adoption of new technologies and techniques by users.

World Wide Computer: there is a shift taking place from computing taking place on personal computers to the Internet. The World Wide Web is turning into a worldwide computer. For example, people use online software, do their taxes online, store files online, etc.  (Carr)

1  JIT Just-in-Time manufacturing. (n.d.) Retrieved from:
2  Technology Leapfrogging. (n.d.) Retrieved from: