Trade Lesson 4 Activities
Demography Project Instructions

You are members of a government committee assigned to write a report to the UN Commission on Population.  Your job is to represent your country in its best light, while not ignoring challenges that you could get help from the UN to fix (i.e. you may need money to address certain issues).

You need to know first of all what type of government your country is run by: One is a dictatorship (China), while the others are full democracies or partial democracies.  Only China will want to fully hide the negative aspects of their demographic situation, so that group will want to hand in a censored and an uncensored version.  Most governments, however, do not like to air all their dirty laundry to the UN, so you need to try to think like them, rather than like yourselves for this project: what would they emphasize?  What would they want to downplay?  Each country will have its own focus though there are similarities.  Some have more pressing environmental issues, others more pressing food shortages (and some both).  Some have political tensions (or just played them out – Egypt), while others are more concerned with their economic futures.

Using statistical information, analysis and projections you find in the online sources supplied to you by the UN answer the following questions in as much detail/depth as you think necessary to make your case.  The general resources have lots of information and may be enough to find all the necessary data and analysis.  The extra sources for each individual country provide more analysis from newspapers, government websites (to give you the country’s take), academic papers and reports.  You may use graphs, pictures and videos to supplement your report.

At the end of the report, list all the sources you used (reports, websites, etc).  You may use quotes in your report (and footnotes or parenthetical citations) but be careful of not plagiarizing (using the words of the author without putting them in quotes and footnoting/citing them). 

This project is a group project. Groups can put their answers in a Wikispace site developed for the class. Alternatively, this assignment could be handed in in regular print format. If you work separately, make sure you all come back together at the end to make sure your document is coherent:  Are you positing a negative view of the demography in your country and its future, positive, moderate, one in need of intervention, etc?

1) TOTAL POPULATION
What is your current population; its rank in the world and its density (how many people per sq. km).  Please insert here your population pyramid and explain what it shows about your current population’s age distribution (the implications of the pyramid will be further analyzed in questions 4-8).

2) POPULATION HISTORY
What events and large forces in history have effected your population?  Trace as best you can the fluctuations in your population and the steps in the FOUR STAGES of the DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL.  Please tell us if you feel this Model does not work for your country and why.

3) STAGE
What stage of the DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL are you currently in and why?  When do you think you will enter the next stage and why?

4) BIRTH RATE
Expand on your analysis of the population pyramid from question 1, to further discuss the role of birth rate considering the following factors where applicable: Family size, use of contraceptives, family planning, government intervention, education of women, tradition/religious factors (such as value of women, religious bans on contraception, preference for boys over girls), age of marriage and marriage rate (how many people marry), maternal death rates (how many mothers die in childbirth), infanticide, child mortality rate, etc.  Do not just give the statistics on each factor, but analyze its role in the demographic situation.  What challenges does your country face when it comes to Birth Rates?

5) DEATH RATE
Expand your analysis of the population pyramid from question 1, to further discuss the role of death rate considering the following factors where applicable: war, disease (epidemic and endemic as well as to who is most targeted), average life-span (is it different for men and women?), tradition/religious factors (such as reluctance to adopt certain medical practices, attitudes towards disease), medical advances and access to.  Do not just give the statistics on each factor, but analyze its role in the demographic situation.  What challenges does your country face when it comes to Death Rates?

6) POLITICAL/ECONOMIC CHALLENGES
What political challenges does your country face due to your population? (ie Youth Bulge or Aging population are challenges to the political system – either through revolts or through stagnation/conservative voting population)  Does your government intervene in the population and its growth in any way and for what means? (Population policies, laws, bans on contraception, limits to use of technology like ultrasounds, one child policy, campaigns to educate women/promote contraception)  What economic challenges? (ie Youth Bulge or Aging population also cause economic concerns – too many young people with no jobs – unemployment, or too many old people retiring, puts strains on those who work and on safety net/social security system).

7) MIGRATION  – In and out (Immigration/Emigration)
How is your population effected by migration patterns?  What are the levels of immigration (people coming in)? Where are the immigrants coming from?  How does this immigrant population affect your population pyramid, your state, your economy and/or your culture?  What are the levels of emigration (people going out)?  Where are the emigrants going to?  What push/pull factors are present in this flow outwards.   How does this emigration affect your population pyramid, your economy (by sending money home?  By taking valuable skills with them?) and/or your political system.

8) AGRICULTURE/ENVIRONMENT
Does your country grow most of its food or import most?  Does food or lack of it effect the population directly? (i.e. famine, malnutrition, etc.)  What challenges does your country have when it comes to Environmental constraints? (Do you have enough fertile land, issues of sustainable practices, pollution, global warming, drought or flooding, etc.).  Do you have any plans for addressing Environmental challenges?

9) FUTURE CHALLENGES
What future challenges does your country face?  What issues would you like help from the UN in improving? (health care, family planning, education, etc.)

10)  COMPARISONS
Please compare your country’s demographic situation to the other countries in the UN Commission Survey (i.e. WIKI spaces groups).  Which country resembles yours the most?  Which the least?  What can you learn from these other countries? (The two you have chosen as most and least similar to you)

Kohl’s Implicit Cultural Assumption List

Aspects of Any Society around Which We Build Implicit Cultural Assumptions 

  1. Work/Profession
21. Good and Evil
  1. Leisure and Recreation/Athletics
22. Fate and Destiny
  1. Education/Learning
23. Accident/Chance
  1. Religion/Philosophy
24. Change/Progress
  1. Family/Kinship
25. Success and Failure
  1. Community/Social Structure
26. The Arts and Aesthetics
  1. Status and Rank/Power
27. Science and Technology
  1. Management
28. Communication/Language
  1. Government/Politics
29. Manners and Polite Behaviors
  1. National Identity
30. Concept of “Self” and “Other”/Privacy
  1. Nature/Animal/Plants
31. “Being” as different from “Doing”
  1. The Constructed (“Man-Made”) Environment
32. Feelings/Emotions
  1. Age and Youth
33. Friendship
  1. Gender roles (Male-female)
34. Leadership
  1. Sex
35. Heroes
  1. Economics/Money
36. Food and Eating Habits
  1. Justice/Law Punishment
37. Health
  1. Welfare/Poverty
38. Materialism
  1. War/Protection/Security
39. Time
  1. Negotiation and Conflict
40. Space

 

Diversity Assignment

Personal Values in Recreation and Leisure Assignment

Goal of the assignment: Discover multiple perspectives on leisure experience from various cultures and learn how to compare and contrast the finding that will build awareness among the students to view the world through broader lenses. Besides attaining diverse knowledge from a different point of view, the students will also learn how to communicate cross culturally that will equip them with the skills to work in a global environment.

Interview ONE person who is from a different country. You would need to prepare a power point presentation that includes the following information. Images from the country you are researching should be included based on the relevant information. 

STEP 1

Each student is required to choose a specific country and conduct a country analysis using sites like CIA World Factbook and other Web-based resources to gather information on the following areas:

a.         Political and Socio-economic structure

b.         Religion and level of education

c.         Demography (Include the present diagram of the population Pyramid

d.         Popular culture (Sports, music, social activities, festivals, number of holidays)

e.         Places to visit (Tourism)

f.          Communication Structure: access to internet, phone, cable etc. 

STEP 2

1. Provide a brief description on the background of your interviewee without disclosing his or her name. Don’t forget to mention that their name and identity will not be disclosed during your interview.  

Ask them about their recreational and leisure attitudes and behaviors. Be sure to include:

  • The importance of recreation and leisure in their lives.
  • List activities they currently participate in.
  • Traditional Food, dresses if they have any
  • Activities they would like to participate in (why or why not).
  • Constraints they face to experience certain types of leisure activities
  • Their views about the importance of work and recreation in their lives.
  • Their views on American way of life
  • Places the interviewee might ask you to tour if you are visiting the country
  • Other questions that you feel would add insight to this interview concerning leisure values/behaviors. 

Step 3 

Based on the communication, develop a culturally sensitive inclusive leisure program considering the background of the individual and identify the major components that helped both of you to make the decision. 

Step 4 

Summarize any similarities or differences between you and the interviewees. Speculate as to the reasons for these similarities or differences.’ 

Step 5

Identify your idea of the country before and whether it changed based on the interview. If so, what were some of your thoughts that changed?

Step 6

Articulate your thought on the overall experience with the interview and judge the effectiveness of this assignment on building awareness on a culture that is different from their own. You will need to hand over this one page summary along with the PowerPoint presentation.

Diversity Assignment

Personal Values in Recreation and Leisure Assignment

Goal of the assignment: Discover multiple perspectives on leisure experience from various cultures and learn how to compare and contrast the finding that will build awareness among the students to view the world through broader lenses. Besides attaining diverse knowledge from a different point of view, the students will also learn how to communicate cross culturally that will equip them with the skills to work in a global environment.

Interview ONE person who is from a different country. You would need to prepare a power point presentation that includes the following information. Images from the country you are researching should be included based on the relevant information.

STEP 1

Each student is required to choose a specific country and conduct a country analysis using sites like CIA World Factbook and other Web-based resources to gather information on the following areas:

a.         Political and Socio-economic structure

b.         Religion and level of education

c.         Demography (Include the present diagram of the population Pyramid

d.         Popular culture (Sports, music, social activities, festivals, number of holidays)

e.         Places to visit (Tourism)

f.          Communication Structure: access to internet, phone, cable etc.

STEP 2

1. Provide a brief description on the background of your interviewee without disclosing his or her name. Don’t forget to mention that their name and identity will not be disclosed during your interview.

Ask them about their recreational and leisure attitudes and behaviors. Be sure to include:

  • The importance of recreation and leisure in their lives.
  • List activities they currently participate in.
  • Traditional Food, dresses if they have any
  • Activities they would like to participate in (why or why not).
  • Constraints they face to experience certain types of leisure activities
  • Their views about the importance of work and recreation in their lives.
  • Their views on American way of life
  • Places the interviewee might ask you to tour if you are visiting the country
  • Other questions that you feel would add insight to this interview concerning leisure values/behaviors.

Step 3

Based on the communication, develop a culturally sensitive inclusive leisure program considering the background of the individual and identify the major components that helped both of you to make the decision.

Step 4

Summarize any similarities or differences between you and the interviewees. Speculate as to the reasons for these similarities or differences.’

Step 5

Identify your idea of the country before and whether it changed based on the interview. If so, what were some of your thoughts that changed?

Step 6

Articulate your thought on the overall experience with the interview and judge the effectiveness of this assignment on building awareness on a culture that is different from their own. You will need to hand over this one page summary along with the PowerPoint presentation.

Human Rights Document Summaries

ICCPR
The treaty offers the right of self-determination; right to freely dispose of wealth and resources; right to life; right to pardon in case of death sentence; right not to be subject to torture; right not to be held in slavery; right to liberty and security of person; right to be informed of charges if arrested; right to compensation if unlawfully arrested; right to leave and enter their own country without restrictions; right to be treated equally at court; right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; right to freedom of association; right to marry; right to a nationality; and other basic rights. The covenant ensures that these rights should be carried out without discrimination.

ICESCR
The treaty offers the right of self-determination; right to work; right to favorable and just conditions at work; right to form trade unions; right to strike; right to protection for mothers after childbirth; right to adequate standard of living; right to physical and mental health; right to education; and other basic cultural and economic rights. The covenant ensures that these rights should be carried out without discrimination.

Differences between the ICCPR, ICESCR, UDHR

- ICESCR limits the rights within it by laws, as long as the laws are compatible with the nature of the rights and promote the general welfare in a democratic society.

-   UDHR and ICCPR contain no general provision applicable to all the rights that authorize the restriction on their exercise.

-   Several rights in the ICCPR though can be restricted for purposes of national security, public order, to protect the rights and freedom of others.

-   Rights in the ICCPR that can never be suspended or limited include: rights to life, to freedom from torture, to freedom from enslavement or servitude, to protection from imprisonment for debt, to freedom from retroactive penal laws, to recognition as a person before the law, and to freedom of thought, conscience and religion

UN Human Rights Bodies

In the UN, there are 10 bodies that monitor the implementation of the human rights treaties:

1)  Human Rights Committee (CCPR): Monitors the implementation of the ICCPR. States submit reports every 4 years on how the rights are being implemented.

2)  Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR): Monitors the implementation of the ICESCR. States submit reports every 5 years on how the rights are being implemented.

3)  Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD):  Monitors the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial  Discrimination. States submit reports every 2 years. Other monitoring mechanisms include an early warning procedure, examination of inter-state complaints and individual complaints.

4) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW): Monitors the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Countries must provide regular reports.  Individuals or groups with complaints can also submit claims of violations and initiate inquiries.

5) Committee against Torture (CAT): 10 independent experts monitors the implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment by its State parties. Reports must be submitted every 4 years. Individuals may make complaints.

6) Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT): make site visits to placed where people have been deprived of liberty, as mandated by an optional protocol.

7) Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC): Monitors the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (and 3 optional protocols) by its State parties. Parties must submit reports every 5 years. Soon individual children will be able to make complaints.

8)  Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW): Monitors the implementation of the Monitors the implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families by its State parties. Parties must submit reports every 5 years. Individual complaints can be made.

9) Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD): Monitors the implementation of the convention by state parties. Optional protocols allow individuals to make complaints.

10) Committee on Enforced Disappearance (CED): Monitors the implementation of the convention by state parties.

Also there are 3 UN Charter-based bodies that include independent experts who monitor state’s compliance with their treaty obligations: Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review, and the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council.

UN Convention Against Torture

Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (the “Torture Declaration”) by the General Assembly on 9 December 1975 (resolution 3452 (XXX)).

The convention took many years to create because of disagreement over the issue of universal jurisdiction, which eventually became part of the CAT.

Convention Against Torture
(adopted in 1984, entered into force in 1987 when ratified by 20 states)

Committee Against Torture has the following tasks:
(i)   To receive, study and comment on periodic reports from the States parties on the measures they have taken to give effect to their undertakings under the Convention (article 19);
(ii)  To initiate an investigation when there is reliable information which appears to contain well-founded indications that torture is being systematically practised in the territory of a State party (article 20);
(iii) To receive and examine complaints by one State party of violations of the Convention by another State party (article 21); and
(iv) To receive and examine applications by individuals claiming to be victims of a violation of the Convention by a State party (article 22).

These tasks though were qualified
- A State party may “opt out” and declare that it does not recognize the Committee’s competence to initiate investigations under article 20 (article 28);
- The Committee’s competence to examine inter-State complaints only applies when a State party has specifically recognized this competence (article 21);
- The Committee’s competence to examine applications by individuals only applies when a State party has specifically recognized this competence (article 22).

State Obligation
(i)   Each State party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture. The prohibition against torture shall be absolute and shall be upheld also in a state of war and in other exceptional circumstances (article 2);
(ii)  No State party may expel or extradite a person to a State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture (article 3);
(iii) Each State party shall ensure that acts of torture are serious criminal offences within its legal system (article 4);
(iv) Each State party shall, on certain conditions, take a person suspected of the offence of torture into custody and make a preliminary inquiry into the facts (article 6);
(v)  Each State party shall either extradite a person suspected of the offence of torture or submit the case to its own authorities for prosecution (article 7);
(vi) Each State party shall ensure that its authorities make investigations when there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed (article 12);
(vii) Each State party shall ensure that an individual who alleges that he has been subjected to torture will have his case examined by the competent authorities (article 13);
(viii) Each State party shall ensure to victims of torture an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation (article 14).

Optional Protocol

Entered into force on 22 June 2006, it “establishes a system of regular visits by international and national bodies to places of detention in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. A Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment has been set up to carry out such visits and to support States parties and national institutions in performing similar functions at the national level.”

An-Na’im Article Summary

An-Na’im, A. A. (1992) “Toward a Cross-Cultural Approach to Defining International Standards of Human Rights: The Meaning of Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.”

Article Summary: The lack of cultural legitimacy of human rights standards is one of the main reasons behind hr violations.  Internal and cross-cultural legitimacy for HR standards need to be developed.

For example, insiders might see a certain punishment as sanctioned by the norms of a particular culture whereas outsiders might see the measure as cruel, inhuman, or degrading. Which position should be taken for the standard?

Dominant groups often hold positions that are advantageous to them, but may be open to different positions that are helpful in achieving justice for them. This is an internal struggle for control over cultural norms and symbols of power in a society. Outsiders might sympathize with the dominant or oppressed group, but cannot offer support that does not put them as agents of an alien culture, thus it does not help the oppressed group.
An-Na’im’s thesis: people are more likely to observe normative propositions if they believe that they are sanctioned by their own cultural traditions. Observance of hr standards can be improved by enhancing the cultural legitimacy of those standards.

Once each society has reached an adequate level of legitimacy for hr standards, then hr scholars  and advocates need to build cross-cultural legitimacy. This will allow people of diverse cultural traditions to agree upon meaning, scope, and method of implementing the rights. Universal consensus should be broadened deepened through dialogue.

Cultural Dynamism: culture is constantly changing, induced by internal adjustments as well as by external influences. Both types of changes adapt to existing norms and institutions. Members of a culture have a range of options to accommodate various individual responses to its norms. The degree of flexibility is controlled by the culture’s own internal criteria for legitimacy. Internal culture discourse provides alternative interpretations, in addition to the dominant one.

Some hr instruments stipulate that no one should be subject to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. UN instruments do not include pain or suffering arising from lawful sanctions, which then is addressed by the second part of the stipulation. An-Naim addresses how to establish criteria by which lawful sanctions can violate “cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.”  In the article – he outlines the use of this phrase in various UN documents.

Cross-cultural perspectives on “cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment”
Islamic perspectives on this phrase may be quite different than Western ones. Are Muslims likely to repudiate certain punishments (such as qisas – exact retribution) as a matter of Islamic Law (based on Sharia) on the ground that they are cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment?  Muslims may accept the premise, but define cruel/inhuman/degrading treatment differently. An-Naim said that the laws may not change, but their implementation might, such as the addition of stronger prerequisites.

CEDAW and CRC Summaries

CEDAW

  • The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women is an international treaty on women’s rights adopted by the United Nations in 1979.
  • The main idea of CEDAW is simple: women should have equal rights with men in every aspect of their lives.
  • Considered to be a veritable “Bill of Rights” for women, the Convention’s 30 articles define what is to be considered discrimination against women and how nations can combat such discrimination.
  • The Convention defines discrimination against women as “…any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”
  • CEDAW discusses many different areas in which governments should be working toward achieving women’s equal rights, public and political life, education, employment, and maternal rights.
  • CEDAW affects every woman because it promises that she should be treated fairly and without discrimination in all the things she does.
  • By signing the Convention, each country is committing itself to amending its laws and practices to guarantee women equal rights and opportunities as well as remedies. The state is also committing itself to presenting a report every four years (at most) that details their progress and setbacks in continuing to amend their national practices.

CRC

  • The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted in by the United Nations on November 20, 1989.
  • It was the first international treaty to guarantee children civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights:
    o Freedom from violence, abuse, hazardous employment, exploitation, abduction or sale
    o Adequate nutrition
    o Free compulsory primary education
    o Adequate health care
    o Equal treatment regardless of gender, race, or cultural background
    o The right to express opinions and freedom of thought in matters affecting them
    o Safe exposure/access to leisure, play, culture, and art.
  • The convention recognizes that these rights must be promoted, if they are going to be enforced. Awareness is not enough.
  • 193 countries are signatories to the agreement. The U.S. has signed but not ratified the agreement. It has 2 additional protocols (children in armed conflict and trafficking in children) – the U.S. has signed and ratified both protocols.
  • Signatories are required to produce report every five years.
Lecture Notes on UNDRIP

o UN DRIP (Adopted in September 2007. 143 nations voted in favor of it.)
 Preamble/Annex
 Article right: right as a collective or as individuals to enjoy human rights and freedoms as articles in the UDHR
 Articles 3 and 4 rights to self-determination
 Article 8 right not to be subjected to forced assimilation
 Article 10 right not be forcibly removed from their land
 Article 14 right to establish and control their own education systems
 Article 26 land rights

o History of the transnational social movement leading up to the UN General Assembly’s adoption of the DRIP in 2007.( See Anaya and Williams article introduction)
 1948, OAS recognized indigenous peoples  as a subject of special concern and ordered their protection to defend against extinction
 Modern indigenous rights movement began in 1960s and 1970s with groups in Americas, Australia, New Zealand seeking to draw world attention to their survival as distinct communities with rights, i.e. land
 1970s, indigenous people’s representatives appeared at UN bodies grounding their concerns in general human rights principles
 Indigenous people’s convinced International Labour Organization to drop assimilationist bias
 In 1982, United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations was established, with a working group charged with drafting the UNDRIP
 Soon the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the European Union, and the domestic legislation and policies started addressing indigenous human rights
 Organization of American States prepared a Proposed American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It has also accepted cases and even prosecuted cases at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (which can make a binding decision)

o Opposition to UNDRIP
 U.S., Canada, New Zealand and Australia all initially opposed the agreement. Canada and the U.S. are re-thinking their position, while New Zealand and Australia reversed their position.
 UNDRIP took a long time to be drafted because of some of the key provisions: the right to self-determination and control over natural resources existing on indigenous peoples’ traditional lands
 Some countries opposed the agreement because it gave tacit recognition of injustices that took place during colonial/imperial periods.
 Land rights are particularly contentious because in some cases, the lands are now lawfully owned by other citizens (and how that land was legally obtained has also been contentious because in certain cases, the indigenous people had no choice but to sell the land)
 Another point of opposition is over the use of “collective” rights vs. individual rights. Is identity defined through individual characteristics or through group membership? Collective rights imply land and resource rights, while individual rights do not. Access to valuable resources is at stake. Many indigenous groups view themselves as part of a collective, rather than individual (CULTURE)
 Some African countries opposed the agreement because they feared the “right to self-determination” might lead to rebellions